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Key Technologies of Smart Grid


2021-02-04

Communication technology

The communication system is the basis for the realization of the smart grid. Without the establishment of a high-speed, two-way, real-time, and integrated communication system, any feature of the smart grid cannot be realized. The communication system can help the smart grid for data acquisition, protection and control, so it is moving towards the smart grid The first step is to establish such a communication system. At the same time, the communication system must reach thousands of households like the power grid, so that two closely connected networks are formed—the power grid and the communication network. Only in this way can the goals and main features of the smart grid be realized. The high-speed, two-way, real-time, and integrated communication system makes the smart grid a large-scale infrastructure for dynamic, real-time information and power exchange interaction. When such a communication system is completed, it can improve the power supply reliability of the power grid and the utilization of assets, prosper the power market, resist attacks on the power grid, and increase the value of the power grid. The establishment of the high-speed two-way communication system enables the smart grid to realize its most important feature-self-healing through continuous self-monitoring and correction, and the application of advanced information technology to sensors. It can also monitor various disturbances, compensate, redistribute the flow, and avoid the expansion of accidents. The high-speed two-way communication system enables various intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), smart meters, control centers, power electronic controllers, protection systems, and users to conduct networked communication, improving the ability to control the power grid and the level of quality services. In this technical field, there are two main areas of technology that need to be focused on. One is an open communication architecture, which forms a "plug and play" environment to enable networked communication between power grid components; second It is a unified technical standard that enables seamless communication between all sensors, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) and application systems, that is, information can be fully understood between all these devices and systems, and the equipment and systems can be fully understood. Interoperability functions between devices, between devices and systems, and between systems and systems. This requires the cooperation of power companies, equipment manufacturers, and standard-setting organizations to realize the interconnection and interoperability of communication systems.

Measurement technology

  Parameter measurement technology is the basic component of the smart grid. Advanced parameter measurement technology obtains data and converts it into data information for use in all aspects of the smart grid. They assess the health of grid equipment and the integrity of the grid, read meters, eliminate electricity bill estimates, prevent electricity theft, reduce grid congestion, and communicate with users. The future smart grid will eliminate all electromagnetic meters and their reading systems, and replace them with smart solid-state meters that enable power companies to communicate with users in both directions. The microprocessor-based smart meter will have more functions. In addition to measuring electricity usage and electricity bills at different times of the day, it will also store peak electricity price signals and electricity tariffs issued by power companies, and notify users of what to implement The rate policy. More advanced functions include the user's own strategy of compiling a schedule according to the rate policy, and automatically controlling the user's internal power usage. For power companies, parameter measurement technology provides power system operators and planners with more data support, including power factor, power quality, phase relationship (WAMS), equipment health and capabilities, meter damage, and failure Data such as positioning, transformer and line load, temperature of key components, power outage confirmation, power consumption and forecasting. The new software system will collect, store, analyze and process these data for use in other businesses of the power company. Digital protection in the future will be embedded in a computer agent program, greatly improving reliability. The computer agent is an autonomous and interactive adaptive software module. The wide-area monitoring system, protection and control scheme will integrate digital protection, advanced communication technology, and computer agent programs. In such an integrated distributed protection system, the protection components can adaptively communicate with each other. Such flexibility and adaptive ability will greatly improve reliability, because even if some systems fail, others have computer agents. The protection element of the program can still protect the system.

Equipment Technology

   Smart grids must widely apply advanced equipment technologies to greatly improve the performance of power transmission and distribution systems. The equipment in the future smart grid will be fully applied to the latest research results in materials, superconductivity, energy storage, power electronics and microelectronics technology, thereby improving power density, power supply reliability and power quality, and the efficiency of power production. The future smart grid will mainly apply advanced technologies in three areas: power electronics technology, superconducting technology and large-capacity energy storage technology. Improve power quality by adopting new technologies and seeking the best balance point between the grid and load characteristics. Through the application and transformation of various advanced equipment, such as equipment based on power electronic technology and new conductor technology, to improve the transmission capacity and reliability of the grid. Many new energy storage devices and power sources must be introduced into the power distribution system, and new network structures, such as microgrids, must be used at the same time. The economical FACTS device will use low-cost power semiconductor devices that are more controllable than existing semiconductor devices, so that these advanced devices can be widely promoted and applied. Distributed power generation will be widely used, and multiple units are connected through a communication system to form a dispatchable virtual power plant. Superconducting technology will be used in short-circuit current limiters, energy storage, low-loss rotating equipment, and low-loss cables. Advanced metering and communication technologies will make demand response applications possible.

Control Technology

    Advanced control technology refers to devices and algorithms for analyzing, diagnosing, and predicting the status of the smart grid and determining and taking appropriate measures to eliminate, reduce, and prevent power supply interruptions and power quality disturbances. These technologies will provide control methods for power transmission, distribution and user side and can manage the active and reactive power of the entire grid. To some extent, advanced control technology closely relies on and serves the other four key technical fields, such as advanced control technology monitoring basic components (parameter measurement technology), and providing timely and appropriate responses (integrated communication technology; advanced equipment) Technology) and rapid diagnosis of any event (advanced decision-making technology). In addition, advanced control technology supports market quotation technology and improves asset management. In the future, the analysis and diagnosis functions of advanced control technology will introduce a preset expert system, and take automatic control actions within the scope allowed by the expert system. The actions performed in this way will be at the second level, and the characteristics of this self-healing power grid will greatly improve the reliability of the power grid. Of course, advanced control technology requires an integrated high-speed communication system and corresponding communication standards to process large amounts of data. Advanced control technology will support distributed intelligent agent software, analysis tools and other application software.

(1) Collect data and monitor grid components

Advanced control technology will use smart sensors, smart electronic equipment and other analysis tools to measure system and user parameters and the status of power grid components to evaluate the status of the entire system. These data are quasi real-time data, which is useful for mastering the overall operation of the power grid. The situation is of great significance. At the same time, the vector measurement unit and the time signal of the global satellite positioning system must be used to realize the early warning of the power grid.  

(2) Analyze the data

   Quasi real-time data and powerful computer processing capabilities provide software analysis tools with the ability to quickly expand and progress. State estimation and emergency analysis will be completed in seconds instead of minutes, which gives advanced control technology and system operators enough time to respond to emergency problems; expert systems convert data into information for rapid decision-making; load forecasting will Apply these quasi-real-time data and improved weather forecast technology to accurately predict the load; probabilistic risk analysis will become routine work to determine the level of risk of the power grid during equipment maintenance, periods of high system pressure, and undesired power supply interruptions; power grids Modeling and simulation enable operators to recognize accurate possible scenarios of the power grid.  

(3) Diagnose and solve problems

  The quasi-real-time data processed by high-speed computers enables experts to diagnose solutions to existing, developing and potential problems, and submit them to system operators for judgment.  

(4) Perform automatic control actions

Smart grid through the combination of real-time communication system and advanced analysis technology makes it possible to perform automatic control actions for problem detection and response. It can also reduce the expansion of existing problems, prevent emergent problems, and modify system settings, status and flow to prevent Predict the occurrence of problems.  

(5) Provide information and choices for operators

   Advanced control technology not only provides action signals for the control device, but also provides information for the operating personnel. The large amount of data collected by the control system is not only useful for itself, but also has great application value for system operators, and these data assist operators in making decisions.

Communication technology

The communication system is the basis for the realization of the smart grid. Without the establishment of a high-speed, two-way, real-time, and integrated communication system, any feature of the smart grid cannot be realized. The communication system can help the smart grid for data acquisition, protection and control, so it is moving towards the smart grid The first step is to establish such a communication system. At the same time, the communication system must reach thousands of households like the power grid, so that two closely connected networks are formed—the power grid and the communication network. Only in this way can the goals and main features of the smart grid be realized. The high-speed, two-way, real-time, and integrated communication system makes the smart grid a large-scale infrastructure for dynamic, real-time information and power exchange interaction. When such a communication system is completed, it can improve the power supply reliability of the power grid and the utilization of assets, prosper the power market, resist attacks on the power grid, and increase the value of the power grid. The establishment of the high-speed two-way communication system enables the smart grid to realize its most important feature-self-healing through continuous self-monitoring and correction, and the application of advanced information technology to sensors. It can also monitor various disturbances, compensate, redistribute the flow, and avoid the expansion of accidents. The high-speed two-way communication system enables various intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), smart meters, control centers, power electronic controllers, protection systems, and users to conduct networked communication, improving the ability to control the power grid and the level of quality services. In this technical field, there are two main areas of technology that need to be focused on. One is an open communication architecture, which forms a "plug and play" environment to enable networked communication between power grid components; second It is a unified technical standard that enables seamless communication between all sensors, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) and application systems, that is, information can be fully understood between all these devices and systems, and the equipment and systems can be fully understood. Interoperability functions between devices, between devices and systems, and between systems and systems. This requires the cooperation of power companies, equipment manufacturers, and standard-setting organizations to realize the interconnection and interoperability of communication systems.

Measurement technology

  Parameter measurement technology is the basic component of the smart grid. Advanced parameter measurement technology obtains data and converts it into data information for use in all aspects of the smart grid. They assess the health of grid equipment and the integrity of the grid, read meters, eliminate electricity bill estimates, prevent electricity theft, reduce grid congestion, and communicate with users. The future smart grid will eliminate all electromagnetic meters and their reading systems, and replace them with smart solid-state meters that enable power companies to communicate with users in both directions. The microprocessor-based smart meter will have more functions. In addition to measuring electricity usage and electricity bills at different times of the day, it will also store peak electricity price signals and electricity tariffs issued by power companies, and notify users of what to implement The rate policy. More advanced functions include the user's own strategy of compiling a schedule according to the rate policy, and automatically controlling the user's internal power usage. For power companies, parameter measurement technology provides power system operators and planners with more data support, including power factor, power quality, phase relationship (WAMS), equipment health and capabilities, meter damage, and failure Data such as positioning, transformer and line load, temperature of key components, power outage confirmation, power consumption and forecasting. The new software system will collect, store, analyze and process these data for use in other businesses of the power company. Digital protection in the future will be embedded in a computer agent program, greatly improving reliability. The computer agent is an autonomous and interactive adaptive software module. The wide-area monitoring system, protection and control scheme will integrate digital protection, advanced communication technology, and computer agent programs. In such an integrated distributed protection system, the protection components can adaptively communicate with each other. Such flexibility and adaptive ability will greatly improve reliability, because even if some systems fail, others have computer agents. The protection element of the program can still protect the system.

Equipment Technology

   Smart grids must widely apply advanced equipment technologies to greatly improve the performance of power transmission and distribution systems. The equipment in the future smart grid will be fully applied to the latest research results in materials, superconductivity, energy storage, power electronics and microelectronics technology, thereby improving power density, power supply reliability and power quality, and the efficiency of power production. The future smart grid will mainly apply advanced technologies in three areas: power electronics technology, superconducting technology and large-capacity energy storage technology. Improve power quality by adopting new technologies and seeking the best balance point between the grid and load characteristics. Through the application and transformation of various advanced equipment, such as equipment based on power electronic technology and new conductor technology, to improve the transmission capacity and reliability of the grid. Many new energy storage devices and power sources must be introduced into the power distribution system, and new network structures, such as microgrids, must be used at the same time. The economical FACTS device will use low-cost power semiconductor devices that are more controllable than existing semiconductor devices, so that these advanced devices can be widely promoted and applied. Distributed power generation will be widely used, and multiple units are connected through a communication system to form a dispatchable virtual power plant. Superconducting technology will be used in short-circuit current limiters, energy storage, low-loss rotating equipment, and low-loss cables. Advanced metering and communication technologies will make demand response applications possible.

Control Technology

    Advanced control technology refers to devices and algorithms for analyzing, diagnosing, and predicting the status of the smart grid and determining and taking appropriate measures to eliminate, reduce, and prevent power supply interruptions and power quality disturbances. These technologies will provide control methods for power transmission, distribution and user side and can manage the active and reactive power of the entire grid. To some extent, advanced control technology closely relies on and serves the other four key technical fields, such as advanced control technology monitoring basic components (parameter measurement technology), and providing timely and appropriate responses (integrated communication technology; advanced equipment) Technology) and rapid diagnosis of any event (advanced decision-making technology). In addition, advanced control technology supports market quotation technology and improves asset management. In the future, the analysis and diagnosis functions of advanced control technology will introduce a preset expert system, and take automatic control actions within the scope allowed by the expert system. The actions performed in this way will be at the second level, and the characteristics of this self-healing power grid will greatly improve the reliability of the power grid. Of course, advanced control technology requires an integrated high-speed communication system and corresponding communication standards to process large amounts of data. Advanced control technology will support distributed intelligent agent software, analysis tools and other application software.

(1) Collect data and monitor grid components

Advanced control technology will use smart sensors, smart electronic equipment and other analysis tools to measure system and user parameters and the status of power grid components to evaluate the status of the entire system. These data are quasi real-time data, which is useful for mastering the overall operation of the power grid. The situation is of great significance. At the same time, the vector measurement unit and the time signal of the global satellite positioning system must be used to realize the early warning of the power grid.  

(2) Analyze the data

   Quasi real-time data and powerful computer processing capabilities provide software analysis tools with the ability to quickly expand and progress. State estimation and emergency analysis will be completed in seconds instead of minutes, which gives advanced control technology and system operators enough time to respond to emergency problems; expert systems convert data into information for rapid decision-making; load forecasting will Apply these quasi-real-time data and improved weather forecast technology to accurately predict the load; probabilistic risk analysis will become routine work to determine the level of risk of the power grid during equipment maintenance, periods of high system pressure, and undesired power supply interruptions; power grids Modeling and simulation enable operators to recognize accurate possible scenarios of the power grid.  

(3) Diagnose and solve problems

  The quasi-real-time data processed by high-speed computers enables experts to diagnose solutions to existing, developing and potential problems, and submit them to system operators for judgment.  

(4) Perform automatic control actions

Smart grid through the combination of real-time communication system and advanced analysis technology makes it possible to perform automatic control actions for problem detection and response. It can also reduce the expansion of existing problems, prevent emergent problems, and modify system settings, status and flow to prevent Predict the occurrence of problems.  

(5) Provide information and choices for operators

   Advanced control technology not only provides action signals for the control device, but also provides information for the operating personnel. The large amount of data collected by the control system is not only useful for itself, but also has great application value for system operators, and these data assist operators in making decisions.